As professorsof marketing, we have examined why customer service continues to be so unsatisfactory even at many profitable companies.
Is good customer service unattainable?
Our research focuses on the structure and incentives of various customer service centers to explain why consumers perpetually experience hassles when seeking refunds.
What we found is not encouraging.
Many complaint processes are actually designed to help companies retain profits by limiting the number of customers who can successfully resolve their complaints.
The process involves a tiered structure in which all incoming inquiries start at “Level 1.” Level 1 may be a call center operator who listens to a complaint but acknowledges that there is nothing he can do.
Only by insisting to talk to a manager or threatening to leave the company do consumers come closer to obtaining a refund.
Forcing customers to talk to a computer, circulate through phone menus or sit on hold “while serving other customers” serves the same deterring role as that Level 1 call-center agent.
For example, one Indian call center that we visited forbade Level 1 agents from offering any monetary refunds.
Consumers may have noticed that companies’ call centers increasingly use automated chatbots to serve as Level 1 “agents.” The caller can talk with a human agent – at Level 2 or even higher – only after the chatbot’s AI technology recognizes that a customer is sufficiently unhappy with the process.
These smart technologies determine the caller’s level of anger by remotely monitoring the tone and pace of voice. If the level of anger reflects a chance the customer may leave the company, then the call is transferred to a more experience operator to handle the complaint.
This allows companies to exploit customers’ individual differences in age, race and gender so that only the “squeakiest wheels” are compensated.
Even United Airlines, whose poor customer service inspired a song and video with nearly 20 million views, claims to offer a “level of service to our customers that makes [United] a leader in the airline industry.”
But our research suggests that in markets without much competition, companies are more likely to implement a tiered complaint process and profit from the reduced payouts to customers.